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Gynecomastia – Breast Surgery in Men

Gynecomastia is the benign enlargement of breast tissue in men. This enlargement is caused by an increased estrogen level during normal physiological development. Breast glands may also enlarge due to the use of anabolic steroids or antihypertensive medication – medication for treating high blood pressure. Sometimes, it is caused by an enlargement of fat tissue – pseudo-gynecomastia.

Pre-op Assessment

The surgery is performed under general anaesthesia, which is why the patient must undergo a pre-operative assessment examination at his GP’s office or at the plastic surgery clinic. This assessment is entirely basic, involving a blood test, a urine test, auscultation and physical examination as well as an EKG. An anaesthesiologist, the doctor who will put you to sleep, will determine the anaesthetic medication for you based on your results and on the anaesthesiology examination. Your chest must be shaved before surgery. This will be done at the clinic, right before the operation.


In the case of smaller gynecomastia, the incision runs along the bottom of the line between the areola and the skin of the breast. The advantage is an invisible scar. The mammary gland is removed entirely, with the exception of a small part under the nipple, to make sure that the areola does not collapse, which could result in a small risk of recurrence. Pseudo-gynecomastia is corrected by liposuction of the chest area. In more extensive gynecomastia, a circular incision is made around the entire areola and excess tissue is subsequently removed.


Bruising and swelling are not unusual. They usually disappear within two weeks. Two-day hospitalisation at the clinic is required. Drainage tubes conduct excess fluid away and are removed on the second day after surgery. Compressive bandages must be worn after surgery and can be definitely taken off after 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, increased physical strain is also permitted.

First Visible Effects

Results are visible when the bandages are finally removed after four weeks. The breasts are reduced, not as prominent and have the desired manly shape.